Workshop: Serious PHP for Real Drupal Developers

Drupal developers are in for a real treat in the next release of Drupal. As of version 8, Drupal will be incorporating the Symfony2 framework and requiring PHP 5.3.4+. Experienced Drupal developers know this means change. Are you ready to level up? Join PHP expert Lorna Jane Mitchell and Drupal trainer Emma Jane Hogbin as they guide you through the core PHP knowledge you'll need for the next release of Drupal. Workshop attendees will learn how to solve common problems using elegant design patterns with object oriented programming. Whether contributing to core, updating contrib modules, or creating custom Drupal products, participants will end the workshop with the skills needed to build elegant, contemporary PHP code for Drupal.

Who is the target audience?

PHP developers who've been focused on Drupal code for the last few years. They are excited about taking advantage of the new features Drupal 8 will be allowing (including PHP 5.3.4 and Symfony2) and want to ensure they are using best practices when refactoring their code. Secondary audience members include: junior and senior developers who've learned their trade on Drupal's code base. They don't have a computer science background and they have learned exclusively "by example". They may be self-conscious of their code and want to be more confident in their ability to create code and not just modify someone else's.


Familiarity with Drupal PHP and a desire to improve the quality of the code written for the Drupal project and web sites deployed with Drupal is required. Developers who maintain their own contributed modules, or work on core development are ideally suited for this program. Drupal consultants and companies focused on site building, theming, and "glue code" modules will not find as much value in this workshop and are encouraged to wait for the open source version of the program. Companies purchasing seats may have junior and senior developers attending. For this reason there will be pre-class resources available with introductory information on PHP and Drupal development. The pre-class resources will include Randy Fay's Examples module. A grocery list of system requirements will be provided; however, we do expect companies to provide their staff members with technical support on how to create a developer environment. Every company should have at least one participant able to create their own local developer environment. If your company does not have this capacity, please wait for the open source version of this course.


What will participants learn? What will they be able to do after the workshop?
  • Describe patterns used in code and frameworks from other projects.
  • Apply best practices for OOP in PHP to the Drupal 8 core and contributed projects.
  • Write more efficient code.
  • Refactor existing code to take advantage of new language features and design patterns.
  • Recognize and refactor Drupal-specific code to use new language features and Symfony.
  • Leverage the capabilities of Symfony when writing new Drupal code.


This class will be delivered as two half-day webinars with supplemental readings and practice exercises.
  • Dates: September 20, September 27.
  • Time: 9AM-12PM (Noon) Eastern Daylight Time
  • Location: WebEx Event Center (support for Linux, OSX and Windows; does not support iOS and other mobile devices)
There will be a recording of the session available within 48 hours of each class. Each company seat will also be granted one PDF license for Lorna's book, PHP Master. The webinars will be kick-off sessions, introducing participants to a hands-on suite of activities. Readings, code snippets, and step-by-step exercises will be available for each part of the workshop to guide participants through the best practices of PHP development for Drupal. To support learners, there will be a class IRC channel. The instructors will be available between webinars at specific times to answer questions and assist learners. We expect there will be many opportunities for peer learning and encourage participants to engage in the IRC channel outside of the office support hours.


Part 1

  • Design patterns: MVC, factories, dependency injections as it applies to context in D8
  • Using Object Oriented Programming to solve problems.

Part 2

  • PHP 5.3-specific features
  • Using Symfony2
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Current Path : /var/www/drupal-7.19/
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Current File : /var/www/drupal-7.19/update.php


 * Defines the root directory of the Drupal installation.
define('DRUPAL_ROOT', getcwd());

 * @file
 * Administrative page for handling updates from one Drupal version to another.
 * Point your browser to "" and follow the
 * instructions.
 * If you are not logged in using either the site maintenance account or an
 * account with the "Administer software updates" permission, you will need to
 * modify the access check statement inside your settings.php file. After
 * finishing the upgrade, be sure to open settings.php again, and change it
 * back to its original state!

 * Global flag indicating that update.php is being run.
 * When this flag is set, various operations do not take place, such as invoking
 * hook_init() and hook_exit(), css/js preprocessing, and translation.
define('MAINTENANCE_MODE', 'update');

 * Renders a form with a list of available database updates.
function update_selection_page() {
  drupal_set_title('Drupal database update');
  $elements = drupal_get_form('update_script_selection_form');
  $output = drupal_render($elements);


  return $output;

 * Form constructor for the list of available database module updates.
function update_script_selection_form($form, &$form_state) {
  $count = 0;
  $incompatible_count = 0;
  $form['start'] = array(
    '#tree' => TRUE,
    '#type' => 'fieldset',
    '#collapsed' => TRUE,
    '#collapsible' => TRUE,

  // Ensure system.module's updates appear first.
  $form['start']['system'] = array();

  $updates = update_get_update_list();
  $starting_updates = array();
  $incompatible_updates_exist = FALSE;
  foreach ($updates as $module => $update) {
    if (!isset($update['start'])) {
      $form['start'][$module] = array(
        '#type' => 'item',
        '#title' => $module . ' module',
        '#markup'  => $update['warning'],
        '#prefix' => '<div class="messages warning">',
        '#suffix' => '</div>',
      $incompatible_updates_exist = TRUE;
    if (!empty($update['pending'])) {
      $starting_updates[$module] = $update['start'];
      $form['start'][$module] = array(
        '#type' => 'hidden',
        '#value' => $update['start'],
      $form['start'][$module . '_updates'] = array(
        '#theme' => 'item_list',
        '#items' => $update['pending'],
        '#title' => $module . ' module',
    if (isset($update['pending'])) {
      $count = $count + count($update['pending']);

  // Find and label any incompatible updates.
  foreach (update_resolve_dependencies($starting_updates) as $function => $data) {
    if (!$data['allowed']) {
      $incompatible_updates_exist = TRUE;
      $module_update_key = $data['module'] . '_updates';
      if (isset($form['start'][$module_update_key]['#items'][$data['number']])) {
        $text = $data['missing_dependencies'] ? 'This update will been skipped due to the following missing dependencies: <em>' . implode(', ', $data['missing_dependencies']) . '</em>' : "This update will be skipped due to an error in the module's code.";
        $form['start'][$module_update_key]['#items'][$data['number']] .= '<div class="warning">' . $text . '</div>';
      // Move the module containing this update to the top of the list.
      $form['start'] = array($module_update_key => $form['start'][$module_update_key]) + $form['start'];

  // Warn the user if any updates were incompatible.
  if ($incompatible_updates_exist) {
    drupal_set_message('Some of the pending updates cannot be applied because their dependencies were not met.', 'warning');

  if (empty($count)) {
    drupal_set_message(t('No pending updates.'));
    $form['links'] = array(
      '#markup' => theme('item_list', array('items' => update_helpful_links())),

    // No updates to run, so caches won't get flushed later.  Clear them now.
  else {
    $form['help'] = array(
      '#markup' => '<p>The version of Drupal you are updating from has been automatically detected.</p>',
      '#weight' => -5,
    if ($incompatible_count) {
      $form['start']['#title'] = format_plural(
        '1 pending update (@number_applied to be applied, @number_incompatible skipped)',
        '@count pending updates (@number_applied to be applied, @number_incompatible skipped)',
        array('@number_applied' => $count - $incompatible_count, '@number_incompatible' => $incompatible_count)
    else {
      $form['start']['#title'] = format_plural($count, '1 pending update', '@count pending updates');
    $form['has_js'] = array(
      '#type' => 'hidden',
      '#default_value' => FALSE,
    $form['actions'] = array('#type' => 'actions');
    $form['actions']['submit'] = array(
      '#type' => 'submit',
      '#value' => 'Apply pending updates',
  return $form;

 * Provides links to the homepage and administration pages.
function update_helpful_links() {
  $links[] = '<a href="' . base_path() . '">Front page</a>';
  if (user_access('access administration pages')) {
    $links[] = '<a href="' . base_path() . '?q=admin">Administration pages</a>';
  return $links;

 * Displays results of the update script with any accompanying errors.
function update_results_page() {
  drupal_set_title('Drupal database update');
  $links = update_helpful_links();

  // Report end result.
  if (module_exists('dblog') && user_access('access site reports')) {
    $log_message = ' All errors have been <a href="' . base_path() . '?q=admin/reports/dblog">logged</a>.';
  else {
    $log_message = ' All errors have been logged.';

  if ($_SESSION['update_success']) {
    $output = '<p>Updates were attempted. If you see no failures below, you may proceed happily back to your <a href="' . base_path() . '">site</a>. Otherwise, you may need to update your database manually.' . $log_message . '</p>';
  else {
    $updates_remaining = reset($_SESSION['updates_remaining']);
    list($module, $version) = array_pop($updates_remaining);
    $output = '<p class="error">The update process was aborted prematurely while running <strong>update #' . $version . ' in ' . $module . '.module</strong>.' . $log_message;
    if (module_exists('dblog')) {
      $output .= ' You may need to check the <code>watchdog</code> database table manually.';
    $output .= '</p>';

  if (!empty($GLOBALS['update_free_access'])) {
    $output .= "<p><strong>Reminder: don't forget to set the <code>\$update_free_access</code> value in your <code>settings.php</code> file back to <code>FALSE</code>.</strong></p>";

  $output .= theme('item_list', array('items' => $links));

  // Output a list of queries executed.
  if (!empty($_SESSION['update_results'])) {
    $all_messages = '';
    foreach ($_SESSION['update_results'] as $module => $updates) {
      if ($module != '#abort') {
        $module_has_message = FALSE;
        $query_messages = '';
        foreach ($updates as $number => $queries) {
          $messages = array();
          foreach ($queries as $query) {
            // If there is no message for this update, don't show anything.
            if (empty($query['query'])) {

            if ($query['success']) {
              $messages[] = '<li class="success">' . $query['query'] . '</li>';
            else {
              $messages[] = '<li class="failure"><strong>Failed:</strong> ' . $query['query'] . '</li>';

          if ($messages) {
            $module_has_message = TRUE;
            $query_messages .= '<h4>Update #' . $number . "</h4>\n";
            $query_messages .= '<ul>' . implode("\n", $messages) . "</ul>\n";

        // If there were any messages in the queries then prefix them with the
        // module name and add it to the global message list.
        if ($module_has_message) {
          $all_messages .= '<h3>' . $module . " module</h3>\n" . $query_messages;
    if ($all_messages) {
      $output .= '<div id="update-results"><h2>The following updates returned messages</h2>';
      $output .= $all_messages;
      $output .= '</div>';

  return $output;

 * Provides an overview of the Drupal database update.
 * This page provides cautionary suggestions that should happen before
 * proceeding with the update to ensure data integrity.
 * @return
 *   Rendered HTML form.
function update_info_page() {
  // Change query-strings on css/js files to enforce reload for all users.
  // Flush the cache of all data for the update status module.
  if (db_table_exists('cache_update')) {
    cache_clear_all('*', 'cache_update', TRUE);

  drupal_set_title('Drupal database update');
  $token = drupal_get_token('update');
  $output = '<p>Use this utility to update your database whenever a new release of Drupal or a module is installed.</p><p>For more detailed information, see the <a href="">upgrading handbook</a>. If you are unsure what these terms mean you should probably contact your hosting provider.</p>';
  $output .= "<ol>\n";
  $output .= "<li><strong>Back up your database</strong>. This process will change your database values and in case of emergency you may need to revert to a backup.</li>\n";
  $output .= "<li><strong>Back up your code</strong>. Hint: when backing up module code, do not leave that backup in the 'modules' or 'sites/*/modules' directories as this may confuse Drupal's auto-discovery mechanism.</li>\n";
  $output .= '<li>Put your site into <a href="' . base_path() . '?q=admin/config/development/maintenance">maintenance mode</a>.</li>' . "\n";
  $output .= "<li>Install your new files in the appropriate location, as described in the handbook.</li>\n";
  $output .= "</ol>\n";
  $output .= "<p>When you have performed the steps above, you may proceed.</p>\n";
  $form_action = check_url(drupal_current_script_url(array('op' => 'selection', 'token' => $token)));
  $output .= '<form method="post" action="' . $form_action . '"><p><input type="submit" value="Continue" class="form-submit" /></p></form>';
  $output .= "\n";
  return $output;

 * Renders a 403 access denied page for update.php.
 * @return
 *   Rendered HTML warning with 403 status.
function update_access_denied_page() {
  drupal_add_http_header('Status', '403 Forbidden');
  watchdog('access denied', 'update.php', NULL, WATCHDOG_WARNING);
  drupal_set_title('Access denied');
  return '<p>Access denied. You are not authorized to access this page. Log in using either an account with the <em>administer software updates</em> permission or the site maintenance account (the account you created during installation). If you cannot log in, you will have to edit <code>settings.php</code> to bypass this access check. To do this:</p>
 <li>With a text editor find the settings.php file on your system. From the main Drupal directory that you installed all the files into, go to <code>sites/your_site_name</code> if such directory exists, or else to <code>sites/default</code> which applies otherwise.</li>
 <li>There is a line inside your settings.php file that says <code>$update_free_access = FALSE;</code>. Change it to <code>$update_free_access = TRUE;</code>.</li>
 <li>As soon as the update.php script is done, you must change the settings.php file back to its original form with <code>$update_free_access = FALSE;</code>.</li>
 <li>To avoid having this problem in the future, remember to log in to your website using either an account with the <em>administer software updates</em> permission or the site maintenance account (the account you created during installation) before you backup your database at the beginning of the update process.</li>

 * Determines if the current user is allowed to run update.php.
 * @return
 *   TRUE if the current user should be granted access, or FALSE otherwise.
function update_access_allowed() {
  global $update_free_access, $user;

  // Allow the global variable in settings.php to override the access check.
  if (!empty($update_free_access)) {
    return TRUE;
  // Calls to user_access() might fail during the Drupal 6 to 7 update process,
  // so we fall back on requiring that the user be logged in as user #1.
  try {
    require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/' . drupal_get_path('module', 'user') . '/user.module';
    return user_access('administer software updates');
  catch (Exception $e) {
    return ($user->uid == 1);

 * Adds the update task list to the current page.
function update_task_list($active = NULL) {
  // Default list of tasks.
  $tasks = array(
    'requirements' => 'Verify requirements',
    'info' => 'Overview',
    'select' => 'Review updates',
    'run' => 'Run updates',
    'finished' => 'Review log',

  drupal_add_region_content('sidebar_first', theme('task_list', array('items' => $tasks, 'active' => $active)));

 * Returns and stores extra requirements that apply during the update process.
function update_extra_requirements($requirements = NULL) {
  static $extra_requirements = array();
  if (isset($requirements)) {
    $extra_requirements += $requirements;
  return $extra_requirements;

 * Checks update requirements and reports errors and (optionally) warnings.
 * @param $skip_warnings
 *   (optional) If set to TRUE, requirement warnings will be ignored, and a
 *   report will only be issued if there are requirement errors. Defaults to
 *   FALSE.
function update_check_requirements($skip_warnings = FALSE) {
  // Check requirements of all loaded modules.
  $requirements = module_invoke_all('requirements', 'update');
  $requirements += update_extra_requirements();
  $severity = drupal_requirements_severity($requirements);

  // If there are errors, always display them. If there are only warnings, skip
  // them if the caller has indicated they should be skipped.
  if ($severity == REQUIREMENT_ERROR || ($severity == REQUIREMENT_WARNING && !$skip_warnings)) {
    drupal_set_title('Requirements problem');
    $status_report = theme('status_report', array('requirements' => $requirements));
    $status_report .= 'Check the error messages and <a href="' . check_url(drupal_requirements_url($severity)) . '">try again</a>.';
    print theme('update_page', array('content' => $status_report));

// Some unavoidable errors happen because the database is not yet up-to-date.
// Our custom error handler is not yet installed, so we just suppress them.
ini_set('display_errors', FALSE);

// We prepare a minimal bootstrap for the update requirements check to avoid
// reaching the PHP memory limit.
require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/';
require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/';
require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/';
require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/';
require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/';
require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/';

// Temporarily disable configurable timezones so the upgrade process uses the
// site-wide timezone. This prevents a PHP notice during session initlization
// and before offsets have been converted in user_update_7002().
$configurable_timezones = variable_get('configurable_timezones', 1);
$conf['configurable_timezones'] = 0;

// Determine if the current user has access to run update.php.

// Reset configurable timezones.
$conf['configurable_timezones'] = $configurable_timezones;

// Only allow the requirements check to proceed if the current user has access
// to run updates (since it may expose sensitive information about the site's
// configuration).
$op = isset($_REQUEST['op']) ? $_REQUEST['op'] : '';
if (empty($op) && update_access_allowed()) {
  require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/';
  require_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/modules/system/system.install';

  // Load module basics.
  include_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/';
  $module_list['system']['filename'] = 'modules/system/system.module';
  module_list(TRUE, FALSE, FALSE, $module_list);
  drupal_load('module', 'system');

  // Reset the module_implements() cache so that any new hook implementations
  // in updated code are picked up.
  module_implements('', FALSE, TRUE);

  // Set up $language, since the installer components require it.

  // Set up theme system for the maintenance page.

  // Check the update requirements for Drupal. Only report on errors at this
  // stage, since the real requirements check happens further down.

  // Redirect to the update information page if all requirements were met.

// update_fix_d7_requirements() needs to run before bootstrapping beyond path.
// So bootstrap to DRUPAL_BOOTSTRAP_LANGUAGE then include

include_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/';


// Now proceed with a full bootstrap.


// Turn error reporting back on. From now on, only fatal errors (which are
// not passed through the error handler) will cause a message to be printed.
ini_set('display_errors', TRUE);

// Only proceed with updates if the user is allowed to run them.
if (update_access_allowed()) {

  include_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/';
  include_once DRUPAL_ROOT . '/includes/';


  // Check the update requirements for all modules. If there are warnings, but
  // no errors, skip reporting them if the user has provided a URL parameter
  // acknowledging the warnings and indicating a desire to continue anyway. See
  // drupal_requirements_url().
  $skip_warnings = !empty($_GET['continue']);

  $op = isset($_REQUEST['op']) ? $_REQUEST['op'] : '';
  switch ($op) {
    // update.php ops.

    case 'selection':
      if (isset($_GET['token']) && drupal_valid_token($_GET['token'], 'update')) {
        $output = update_selection_page();

    case 'Apply pending updates':
      if (isset($_GET['token']) && drupal_valid_token($_GET['token'], 'update')) {
        // Generate absolute URLs for the batch processing (using $base_root),
        // since the batch API will pass them to url() which does not handle
        // update.php correctly by default.
        $batch_url = $base_root . drupal_current_script_url();
        $redirect_url = $base_root . drupal_current_script_url(array('op' => 'results'));
        update_batch($_POST['start'], $redirect_url, $batch_url);

    case 'info':
      $output = update_info_page();

    case 'results':
      $output = update_results_page();

    // Regular batch ops : defer to batch processing API.
      $output = _batch_page();
else {
  $output = update_access_denied_page();
if (isset($output) && $output) {
  // Explicitly start a session so that the update.php token will be accepted.
  // We defer the display of messages until all updates are done.
  $progress_page = ($batch = batch_get()) && isset($batch['running']);
  print theme('update_page', array('content' => $output, 'show_messages' => !$progress_page));

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